The History of the Royal Lineage of Scotland
Celts move into England
Contrary to the traditional idea that Britain originally possessed a 'Celtic' uniformity which first Roman, then Saxon and other invaders disrupted, in reality Britain has always been home to multiple peoples; and while its population has shown strong biological continuity over millennia, the identities the islanders have chosen to adopt have undergone some remarkable changes, due to contacts and conflicts across the seas, not least as the result of episodic, but often very modest, arrivals of newcomers. (BBC)
|60||Iceni Revolt||60-61||Boudicca, Queen of the Iceni, revolts
After her husband died, the Romans not only took his property but raped his daughters. Queen Boudicca led a revolt that burned multiple towns including London. Her forces were massacred by the Romans and she is said to have taken poison rather than die at their hands.
|400||Early History||383-436||Romans leave England
The Roman conquest, which started in AD 43, illustrates the profound cultural and political impact that small numbers of people can have, for the Romans did not colonise the island to any significant degree. To a population of around three million, their army, administration, and carpet-baggers added only a few per cent. The future Scotland remained beyond Roman government, although the nearby presence of the empire had major effects. (BBC)
|400-600||Angles, Saxons, Jutes invade from Germany
As the Roman hold on Britain got progressively weaker, England was subject to a fresh influx of settlers from the area of modern Germany. These settlers, tribes of Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and Frisians, may have first come to England as mercenaries in the Roman army.
|400-613||Celts pushed into Scotland and Wales
When the Romans left Britain, there was a renaissance of Celtic culture.
The most famous of the Celtic princes was Vortigern, who ruled over eastern Britain. To fight against the Pictish invasions, he sent across the channel to get help from the Saxons, a Germanic tribe that had begun emigrating into western Europe in the fifth century. The Saxon mercenaries, however, grew in number as more and more Saxons came to Britain. Whether or not the story of Vortigern is true, Britain fell prey to the same Germanic emigrations and invasions that spread across Gaul, Spain, and Italy. The Saxon emigration began in eastern England until they spread entirely across lowland England. The mountainous areas to the west (Wales) and the north (Scotland), however, remained Celtic, as did Ireland. By the end of the fifth century AD, only Wales, Scotland, and Ireland remained of the great Celtic tribal kingdoms that had dominated the face of Europe.
|626||Edwin of Northumbria founds Edinburgh
Saint Edwin (alternately Eadwine or Aeduini) (c. 586 to October 12, 632/633) was the King of Deira and Bernicia - which would later become known as Northumbria - from about 616 until his death. He converted to Christianity and was baptised in 627; after he fell at the Battle of Hatfield Chase, he was venerated as a saint.
|560||The Four Kingdoms||
The Four Kingdoms of Scotland were:
See Kenneth MacAlpin for more information.
In 685, in the Battle of Nechtansmere, the Picts defeat the Northumbrians.
The Battle of Nechtansmere took place in Dunnichen, a small village located near the town of Forfar, Angus on May 20th, 685 AD. The participants were the Angles and the Picts in what was a simple battle over territory. The consequences, however, would be much more dramatic, and effect the history of England and Scotland to a great degree over the next millennia and a half.
|574||Aidanus||Son of Gabran||Father of King Arthur of Camelot
Crowned King of Dalraida by Saint Columba on Iona in 574, he died in 606.
|607||Cinead Cerr||King of Dalraida
Killed in battle.
|608||Arthurius||Son of Aidanus||King Arthur of Camelot
His legends may well have been written in more different ways than any ruler in history. He is thought to have died in battle in 632.
|632||Domnall Breac||King of Dalraida
Killed in battle at Strathcarron in 642.
|646||Fearchar Fada||Chief of the clan Baedan|
King of the Strathclyde Scots
He killed Domnall Breac in battle in 642.
|697||Ainbhceallach||Son of Fearchar Fada||
Killed by Sealbhach, his brother, in 724
May have been King of Dalraida for a time
|767||Sealbhach||Son of Fearchar Fada||
Killed his brother, Ainbhceallach, in 724.
|787||First Viking raids begin
The three kingdoms of Mercia, Northumbria and Wessex, not only were competing between themselves, but they were also under sustained attack from Viking raids. The Viking incursions culminated with a "Great Army" landing in East Anglia in 865 AD. It made wide territorial gains, and by 875 the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria had succumbed. Only Wessex remained as Anglo Saxon.
The Vikings attacked Wessex in 878, and the Saxon king, Alfred, had to flee to the Somerset marshes. However he was able to regroup and counter attack. His efforts and those later of his son and grandsons, gradually pushed the Vikings northwards and eventually into the sea.
|843||Scots defeat Picts
Militarily, the Picts appear well organized and equipped. They outnumbered the Scots by more than nine to one and with such organization it is baffling how they could have been defeated in four centuries.
|843||Kenneth MacAlpin||The first King of Scotland
There is some dispute as to whether Kenneth MacAlpin was ever actually a King of Scotland. His place in history comes from uniting the Scots and the Picts and this came after defeating the Picts in battle in 843. The key point is that there were no further battles after that.
However, given that the Pictish culture quickly disappeared after the unification, it's arguable that the battle didn't so much unify Scotland as it reserved Scotland exclusively for the Scots.
(The second reference is fairly heavily-laden with hyperbole but it is true that the Pictish culture disappeared in this period and a case is made that Kenneth MacAlpin was the reason for that.)
|859||Donald I||Brother of Kenneth|
|863||Constantine I||Son of Kenneth||877||
Constantine I is killed in a battle with the Danes.
|877||Aedh||Son of Kenneth|
|878||Eocha||Grandson of Kenneth|
|889||Donald II||Son of Constantine I||
Donald II took the throne of Scotland in battle as an act of revenge. King Giric of Scotland (who ruled jointly with Donald II's predecessor, Eochaid) had murdered Donald II's uncle, Aedh, in 878. Upon Giric's death, Donald II expelled Eochaid from the country, thereby taking rulership of Scotland for himself.
|900||Constantine II||Son of Aedh||
The Battle of Brunanbuh takes place in 937. Constantine II and the Danes are defeated by Aethelstan of England.
|943||Malcolm I||Son of Donald II||950||
Malcolm I, the son of Donald II of Scotland, became the King of Scotland in 943 after his cousin King Constantine II of Scotland abdicated and became a monk.
Malcolm I was a prince of great abilities and prudence, and Edmund I of England (939�946) courted his alliance by ceding Cumbria, then consisting of Cumberland and part of Westmorland, to him in the year 945, on condition that he would defend that northern county, and become an ally of Edmund I. This required Scotland to send military support if England was attacked by either the Danes of Northumbria or the Norwegians of Ireland. The alliance between England and Scotland remained after the death of both Kings.
|954||Indulf||Son of Constantine II||959||
Indulf left one lasting contribution beyond his battles with the Norsemen. His father, Constantine II, fleeing before Athelstan, had abandoned the Lothians to the English. In a decisive victory over Northumbria, Indulf recaptured the fortress in Edinburgh, Dun Eden.
|962||Dubh (Duff)||Son of Malcolm I||967||
Dubh is murdered.
|967||Cuilean||Son of Indulf|
|971||Kenneth II||Son of Dubh||979||
Little is known of Kenneth II but it is said he was killed by some act of treachery.
|995||Constantine III||Son of Cuilean||997||
Constantine III is murdered
|997||Kenneth III||Son of Dubh||1005||Kenneth III is killed in a civil war.|
|1005||Malcolm II||Son of Kenneth II||1013||
The Danes control England
The Battle of Carham, in which Malcolm II is victorious against a large army of English and Vikings, united Scotland and Lothian. Shortly after that, Strathclyde joined.
|1018||The Unification of Scotland is complete|
|1034||Duncan I||Grandson of Malcolm II||1040||
Duncan I invades England but accomplishes nothing and is killed in civil strife shortly afterward.
|1040||Macbeth||Cousin of Duncan I||1050||The Normans penetrate England|
Macbeth is killed in the Battle of Lumphanan by Malcolm, son of Duncan I. As king, Malcolm becomes Malcolm III.
|1057||Malcolm III||Son of Duncan I||1070||
William the Conqueror (crowned William I in 1066) invades Scotland, compelling Malcolm III to swear allegiance.
|1093||Malcolm invades England but loses the battle and his life.|
|1093||Donald II (Donald Bane)||Son of Duncan I||1094|
|1094||Duncan II||Son of Malcolm III||1094||
Duncan II is killed a few months after driving out Donald Bane.
|1094||Donald II (Donald Bane)||Son of Duncan I||1096||
The First Crusade begins
|1097||Edgar||Half-brother of Duncan II||1099||
Crusaders take Jerusalem
|1107||Alexander I||Brother of Edgar|
|1124||David I||Brother of Alexander I||1138||
David I invades England but is defeated.
This period is interesting because it saw strong Norman families moving into Scotland. Robert the Bruce (de Brus) will play a prominent role in the future history of Scotland.
The Second Crusade begins.
The Second Crusade fails in Asia Minor.
|1154||Malcolm IV||Grandson of David I|
|1165||William the Lyon||Brother of Malcolm IV||1173||
After being defeated and captured in battle, William the Lyon yields the independence of Scotland.
Richard I of England restores the independence of Scotland in exchange for cash to support the Third Crusade.
The Third Crusade begins
The Fourth Crusade begins
|1209||John invades Scotland|
The Children's Crusade begins
|1214||Alexander II||Son of William the Lyon||1228||
The Sixth Crusade begins
|1240||Border fixed between Scotland and England|
The Seventh Crusade begins
|1249||Alexander III||Son of Alexander II||1274||Edward I of England|
|1286||Margaret||Granddaughter of Alexander III||
Margeret or the Maid of Norway is only four when she rises to the throne but dies soon after.
|1292||John Balliol||Great-great-great-grandson of David I||
The background story is that John Balliol was chosen as King of Scotland by Edward of England. Edward was given the right to choose because the lords of Scotland could not decide among themselves. Balliol was a weak ruler who did whatever Edward wanted until requested to help in an invasion of France. Balliol instead signed a treaty with France. Edward invaded Scotland shortly thereafter and took over control.
|1295||Scotland signs a treaty with France, beginning the "Auld Alliance."|
Edward I of England defeats Balliol. He presented little resistance to the English as he was not able to unite his people and England won easily. Scottish nobles were divided in their loyalties because of their land ownership in Scotland and England. Balliol's reign ended in disgrace when he submitted himself as a vassal to a representative of Edward 1 of England.
Edward took to London the Stone of Scone or Stone of Destiny, on which Scottish Kings were crowned, and it remains there to this day. Edward also made those who had land in Scotland sign a list of names to show that they recognized him as their king. If they refused their lands were confiscated. This list of names is called "The Ragman's Roll" and still exists. It has about two thousand names one of which is Robert Bruce.
The Scots under William Wallace defeat the English at Stirling Bridge
Any notion Edward I may have had regarding subjugation of the Scots disappeared quickly as resistance from Wallace began almost as soon as Edward returned to England.
|1298||William Wallace is defeated at Falkirk|
|1300||Edward I invades Scotland|
|1305||William Wallace captured and executed|
Robert I (Robert the Bruce) is at first driven into hiding because Scotland is still occupied by Edward's forces.
The Stuart Kings were direct descendants of King Robert the Bruce. So is the present Royal Family, who are descended from the daughter of King James V1 of Scotland (James 1 of England).
|1307||The drive to force the English out of Scotland culminates in the siege of Stirling Castle. The Scots route the English army at the Battle of Bannockburn.|
|1328||The English recognize Scottish independence through the Treaty of Edinburgh.|
|1329||David II||Son of Robert I|
Edward Balliol, son of John Balliol, invades Scotland and deposes David II.
David II returns to reclaim the crown.
|1341||David II||Son of Robert I||1346||
David II assists France against the English but is captured and taken to the Tower of London.
In 1355, the Scots defeat the English at Nesbit
|1371||Robert II||Nephew of David II||1385||The Anglo-Scot war is renewed|
|1388||The Scots defeat the English at the Battle of Otterburn.|
|1390||Robert III||Son of Robert II||
Robert III dies when he is told his son, James I, has been captured by pirates between France and Scotland.
|1406||James I||Son of Robert III||1406||
James I imprisoned by English and learns of his succession while confined in the Tower of London. It will be eighteen years before he is released.
The English release James I to return to Scotland.
|1436||The Scots defeat the English near Berwick.|
James I is assassinated.
|1437||James II||Son of James I||1438||
Nine years truce with England
|1448||The Anglo-Scot war is renewed.|
James II is killed when a cannon explodes.
|1460||James III||Son of James II||1464||
Peace between Scotland and England
|1488||James IV||Son of James III||1491||The Truce of Coldstream between Scotland and England|
James IV invades Northumberland
James IV marries Margaret, daughter of Henry VII
|1513||James V||Infant son of James IV||
James V is only an infant when he rises to the throne and it will be fifteen years before he can rule for himself.
|1542||Mary, Queen of Scots||Daughter of James V||1548||
Mary is betrothed to Dauphin
Mary, Queen of Scots, marries the Dauphin
|1578||Mary, Queen of Scots, is imprisoned by Elizabeth I|
|1578||James VI||Son of Mary||1586||
The focus of a long series of Roman Catholic plots against Elizabeth, culminating in the Babington Plot to assassinate the English queen, led to Elizabeth's ministers demanding Mary's execution: 'so long as there is life in her, there is hope; so as they live in hope, we live in fear'.
Mary was finally executed at Fotheringhay Castle in Northamptonshire on 8 February 1587, at the age of 44. She was buried in Peterborough Cathedral.
|1603||James VI||Son of Mary||Succeeds Elizabeth I as James I of England, Scotland and Ireland.|
James VI had Mary's body exhumed and placed in the vault of King Henry VII's Chapel in Westminster Abbey.
|1625||Charles I||Son of James VI||1633||Charles I crowned King of Scotland|
|1649||Charles II||Son of Charles I||1649||England declared a Commonwealth|
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